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Русский Туркестан. История, люди, нравы.


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Вторая экспедиция Франка Мейера. Кашгария и Джунгария (2/3)
Meyer
rus_turk
Часть 1 Часть 2 Часть 3


36. Гребенщик, или тамариск [5653. Tamarix sp. A very large specimen growing on a piece of Holy Land. Said to be over 200 years old! It is certainly the largest specimen I have seen in my wanderings and its age is certainly not under a century and perhaps even older. Burya-Lyang, Chinese Turkestan, December 8, 1910.]


37. Тополь белый [5634. Populus alba. The straight trunk of an imposing specimen of the white poplar, probably over 100 ft. tall. The trunk measured 25 ft. in circumfrence 5 ft. above the ground. The tree was surrounded on all sides by minor poplars and could not be taken satisfactorily in its entirety. Burya-Lyang, Chinese Turkestan. December 8, 1910.]


38. Туранга сизолистная [5639. Populus pruinosa. A tall, imposing specimen of a desert poplar, occurring on sandy, alkaline wastes. The wood is used very much the same as that of Populus diversifolia. Deserves to be tested as a lumber and fuel tree on sandy, alkaline wastes in the S.W. U.S. Near Yarkend, Chinese Turkestan. December 14, 1910.]


39. Лох узколистный [5622. Eleagnus angustifolia. A row of old, pollarded Oleaster trees, planted as a wind break between fields. Deserves to be given a real hard test in the arid sections of the United States. Near Yarkand, Chinese Turkestan. December 18, 1910.]


40. Тополь белый [5633. Populus alba. The trunk of an enormous white poplar, 25 ft. in circumference 4 ft. above the ground. Estimated to be about 250 years old. Notice the young, straight specimens of the pyramidal white poplar in the background. Yarkend, Chinese Turkestan. December 18, 1910.]


41. Тополь Болле (старые тополя и карагачи, растущие у могилы) [5626. Populus alba Bolleana. A grave planted with very old pyramid poplars and elms (Ulmus sp.); the larger trees are all close to the three centuries old. A well planted avenue of these poplars makes a most curious impression, in giving practically no shade as long as the trees are fairly young; they furnish excellent wind breaks however. Shagra near Yengihissar, Chinese Turkestan. December 23, 1910.]


42. Карагач [5645. Ulmus foliacea. An elm tree of a very peculiar shape; locally considered to have something to do with supernatural powers. Native Mohammedan guide standing on trunk, dressed all up in winter garb. Near Shagran, Chinese Turkestan. December 23, 1910.]


43. Карагач [5646. Ulmus foliacea. A very large elm tree standing near an old grave. The tree is, beyond question, close to the three centuries old, for elms grow slowly in Turkestan. Shagran, Chinese Turkestan. December 23, 1910.]


44. Бустан-Терек. Киргизское селение [5671. Turkestan. The Kirghiz settlement in the Pustan Terek, where we obtained a large hulless barley and various other things. Pustan Terek, Chinese Turkestan. December 28, 1910.]


45. Ель Шренка [5672. Picea Schrenkiana. A stony ravine in the Pustan Terek region, where Thian Shan spruces and rare poplars occur. Poplar cuttings sent under Nos. 882 and 883. Pustan Tarek, Chinese Turkestan.]


46. Ель Шренка [5673. Picea Schrenkiana. A protected ravine facing north, where fine specimens of the Thian Shan spruce occur, probably the most southern limit for this particular conifer. The even, parallel running ridges are the work of the sheep. Pustan Terek, Chinese Turkestan. December 28, 1910.]


47. Кашгар. Пятничный базар [5679. Every Friday, there is a large market or bazar held in Kashgar and every Sunday a small one. This picture shows the Friday market. Cloth, skins, rice, flour, dried fruits, and in fact, all sorts of things are sold and resold. Kashgar, Chinese Turkestan. February 9, 1911.]


48. Кашгар. Пятничный базар. Рассказчик повествует о былой славе Туркестана [5680. The Friday bazar in Kashgar. A storyteller informs the crowd of former glories of Turkestan. The natives of Chinese Turkestan are known for their lying, lazy and cheating dispositions, combined with an intense ignorance. They are, however, not revengeful and murder is a very rare occurance. Kashgar, Chinese Turkestan. February 9, 1911.]


49. Экспедиционная повозка, запряженная мулами и лошадью [5681. Our large cart, with its three mules and a strong horse, and over 1000 lbs. of baggage trekking through a piece of sandy and alkaline desert. Near Ure-dalik, Chinese Turkestan. February 13, 1911.]


50. Туранга сизолистная [5684. Populus pruinosa. Desert landscape with old specimens of Populus pruinosa in the background and Tamarisk mounts in between. Near Ure-dalik, Chinese Turkestan.]


51. Туранга сизолистная [5685. Populus pruinosa. A closeby view of the trunk of a large desert poplar, Populus pruinosa. See photo No. 5689. Near Ure-dalik, Chinese Turkestan. February 14, 1911.]


52. Туранга разнолистная [5689. Populus diversifolia. A closeby view of the trunk of a large old desert poplar. The bark of this poplar tends to become on old trees more or less shaggy and comes off in plates. Near Ure-dalik, Chinese Turkestan. February 14, 1911.]


53. Переводчик позирует у куста тамариска [5682. Tamarix sp. A Tamarisk bush of very spreading growth having long, slender branches of rose red color. This single bush by way of its long, partly creeping branches occupied more than 25 square meters of land. Near Tumchuk, Chinese Turkestan. February 18, 1911.]


54. Франк Мейер в зарослях тамариска [5683. Tamarix sp. In the Tamarisk jungle. On some places in the desert where the water was near the surface, we passed through veritable jungles of Tamarisk bushes. Sometimes they were up to 20 ft. tall and had stems 1/2 ft. in diameter. Near Tumchuk, Chinese Turkestan. February 18, 1911.]


55. Туранга разнолистная и туранга сизолистная [5686. Populus diversifolia and P. pruinosa. A frozen swamp in the desert. The sandy and alkaline surroundings are densely covered with poplar jungle. The two species of desert poplars, P. diversifolia and P. pruinosa are very thoroughly mixed. Near Yak-kuduk, Chinese Turkestan. February 19, 1911.]


56. Туранга разнолистная [5688. Populus diversifolia. A big specimen of a desert poplar so full of galls that it looks as if the tree hadn't shed all its leaves yet. Near Yak-kuduk, Chinese Turkestan. February 19, 1911.]


57. Лебеда; туранга разнолистная [5687. Atriplex and Populus diversifolia. A desert landscape, with Atriplex bushes covering the strongly alkaline depressions and Populus diversifolia occurring on the more elevated sandy expanses. Near Yak-kuduk, Chinese Turkestan. February 20, 1911.]


58. Тополь белый [5674. Populus alba. A large old specimen of the Central Asia white poplar, or in the vernacular Ak Terek, growing in the compound of a Sart cattle keeper. We had to climb on the roof of the house to get a satisfactory view. Ses also photos 5629-5635 inclusive. Near Aksu, Chinese Turkestan. February 25, 1911. ]


59. Карагач [5675. Ulmus densa. A very large specimen of an ornamental elm tree called Seda. Scions of this same tree sent under No. 962. Aksu, Chinese Turkestan. February 25, 1911.]


60. Карагач [5676. Ulmus densa. A nearby view of the globular headed elm called Seda. The age of this specimen may be two centuries or a trifle over, for this variety is by no means a very rapid grower. Aksu, Chinese Turkestan. February 25, 1911.]


61. Окрестности Аксу. Резкий переход от лёссового плоскогорья к влажной низине [5693. Aksu. Abrupt change from loess tableland to the low moist plain. February 26, 1911.]


62. Рисовые поля в окрестностях Аксу [5694. Aksu. The rich plain around Aksu, where some of the finest rice is raised. February 26, 1911.]


63. Город Аксу [5690. Aksu. March 1, 1911.]


64. Город Аксу [5691. Aksu. March 1, 1911.]


65. Аксу. Кладбище [5692. Aksu. An ancient cemetery. March 1, 1911.]


66. Аксу. Край лёссового плоскогорья [5695. Aksu. The edges of the loess tableland at Aksu. March 1, 1911.]


67. Караван экспедиции [5696. Turkestan. Our caravan. Mountains composed of salt entirely or of salt and red loess.]


68. Ущелье [5697. Turkestan - near Kurgan. A desolate mountain ravine. March 5, 1911.]


69. Берёза полезная и тополь душистый [5698. Betula utilis and Populus suaveolens. Red barked birches, intermixed with poplars in a sheltered situation. The grass in the foreground is Lasiogrostis splendens. Near Kai-lik (Thian Shan), Chinese Turkestan, Alt. 8400 ft. March 6, 1911.]


70. Тянь-Шанские горы [5699. Near Yengi-Malak. Vegetation on the whole extremely poor. March 6, 1911.]


71. Ива [5700. Salix sp. A grove of tall, bushy willows, occuring here and there on rather stony and dry places. Near Yengi-Malak (Thian Shan) Chinese Turkestan. Alt. over 8000 ft. March 6, 1911.]


72. Ива [5701. Salix sp. Densely growing willow bushes fit to be grown as windbreaks in northern sections of United States. Kailik, Chinese Turkestan, (Thian Shan) March 6, 1911. Altitude 8400 feet.]


73. Ива [5702. Salix sp. A jungle of willows with a few poplars at the edges. Some of the mountains in the background are over 12000 ft. high. Kailik, Chinese Turkestan (Thian Shan) Alt. 8400 ft. March 6, 1911.]


ОКОНЧАНИЕ

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Спасибо!

А скажите, почему этим деревьям дали вырасти до такой большины? Ведь мало же леса, а их не вырубали. Их что, специально берегли? А чем тогда топили в основном и на чём готовили?

Не за что!
В Средней Азии для хозяйственных целей специально сажали тополя. Топить можно хворостом (в том числе засохшими ветвями фруктовых деревьев из своего сада), соломой, кизяком. Сушащиеся на солнце кизяки еще будут на фото -- правда, уже не в Туркестане, а в Джунгарии.

А большие деревья, которые не вырубались, могли и расти у могил, и просто приносить пользу, давая тень. Уверен, что были и китайские законы, запрещающие самовольную вырубку.

Если смотреть по фотографиям, без подписей, то отличий с российской ЦА практически не наблюдается.

На мой взгляд, самое большое отличие -- в транспорте. Например, попадаются китайские "сундуки" с окнами, как на фото 15.

"Народ ленивый, но не мстительный"? Так потому и не мстят, что для мести нужно усилия прилагать.
А может, они ленивы из-за того, что в тамошнем климате любое действие очень много усилий требует.

Edited at 2014-12-22 07:16 am (UTC)

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